What is the difference between the content and process. The works of skinner are cited most often in connection with the reinforcement theory. Content and process theories of motivation pdf free download. In this case the needs mean physiological or psychological sense of lack. Vrooms study in the process motivation theories, highlight conscious choices, i. Expectancy theory is a theory first developed by victor vroom in 1964 and later developed by. Thus, theories of motivation can be broadly classified as. Process theories attempt to explain the thought processes of individuals who demonstrate motivated behavior. However, leaders and administrators in the public sector.
Motivation can change the profit figure of the or ganization such as its improving produc tivity. Jan 16, 2018 motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives. The theory says motivation depends on a comparison to others, called a referent. They are concerned with types of incentives that drive people to attain need fulfillment. Motivation is the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Process theories of motivation stars university of. Content theories of motivation also referred to as needs theories focus on the needs that motivate behavior. Based on these aspects, there are three types of theories of motivation. Whereas the content theories concentrate on the question of what motivates, the process theories address more the issues relating to how the process works and sustains itself over time, such as factors that determine the degree of effort, the continuation of effort, the modification of effort, etc. According to this theory motivation of any individual depends on the desired goal and strength of his expectation of achieving. Jul 09, 2017 the process theories mainly imply that individual choices are based on preferences, reward factors and sense of accomplishment. These theories provide insight into what motivates people to act a certain way in a particular setting and are popular in business management.
The content theories deal with what motivates people, whereas the process theories deal with, how motivation occurs. Based on content theory that emphasize on factors and needs that encourage and inspire employees behaviour as well as performance. The use of both content and process theories must be put into practice to motivate employees effectively. In essence, these theories examine how a persons needs will affect his behavior in order to achieve a goal related to those needs. Difference between content theory and process theory. Individuals analyze their environment, develop thoughts and feelings, and react in certain ways. A process theory is a system of ideas that explains how an entity changes and develops.
The content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized. The content and process theories of motivation provide human resource managers with the basic understanding of personal needs deficiencies, and how these needs can be transformed into motivated behavior. Although reinforcement theory is treated in organizational behavior textbooks as a process theory, we cannot regard it as such. Simply stated, employees have needs, and process theories seek to deliver these. Equity theory is based on perception, and its relationship to process motivational theories is how leaders and administrators must monitor this perception. In general, process based theories take the mental processes of employees into account as a way to understand their motivation. The main difference between content and process theories is that content theory focuses on individual needs, while process theory focuses on behavior. Contentprocess theories of motivation variety of workplace motivation theories are classified as either process theory or content theory campbell et.
The sources of motivation can vary between individuals and not the same factor drives. Needs can keep changing based on peoples experiences and other factors. We can also have process theories, which are concerned with the thought processes that influence our behaviour. We have appreciated earlier the importance of motivation in determining human behaviour. The most stable and therefore the healthiest selfesteem is based on respect from others. Process cognitive theories of motivation 1 reinforcement theory argues that the behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated. Pdf comparison of process theories to content theories in. Two such theories are expectancy theory and equity theory. In this chapter, content and process related theories of work motivation are described and discussed. Reinforcement theory is based on several principles of operant conditioning.
Process theories of motivation written by marla rosen thursday, 05 may 2011 10. And in the end, it ensures the betterment of the overall economic condition of a county. Put simply, this is all about how peoples needs influence and drive their behaviour. These different cognitive theories of motivation are usually divided into two contrasting approaches1. Mar 11, 2016 process cognitive theories of motivation 1 reinforcement theory argues that the behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated. Three specific theories were formulated during this period, which although heavily attacked and now questionable in terms of validity, are probably still the bestknown explanations for employee motivation.
Chapter 5 contemporary theories of motivation integrating. Process related theories explain how motivation evolves and is. Equity theory is based on perception, and its relationship. Therefore, the managers should understand the process of motivation. A qualitative approach and theory based application were considered for this study. Pdf as we know motivation is a mechanism which ultimately influences people to act in a desired way. Within the work environment they have had the greatest impact on management practice and policy, whilst within academic circles they are the least accepted. Doc theories of motivation content and process theories the.
Process theories of motivation are about a cognitive rational process and concentrate on the psychological and behavioural processes that motivate an individual. The content theories of motivation in a historical perspective, the content theories tend to be the earliest theories of motivation or later modifications of early theories. The process theories mainly imply that individual choices are based on preferences, reward factors and sense of accomplishment. There are four predominant process theories that include reinforcement, expectancy, equity and goal setting. Management concepts and organisational behaviour module. Content and process theories of motivation quizlet. Process theories are often contrasted with variance theories, that is, systems of ideas that explain the variance in a dependent variable based on one or more independent variables. Content theories attempt to explain those specific things, which actually motivate the individual at work. Essay on content and process theories of motivation 4 words. Values are incentives or reasons for engaging in an activity. Pdf motivation theories have been classified into process theory and. Motivation process is universal, all people are motivated to pursue goals they value.
Content theories of motivation are one of the types of motivation theory. So motivation is one of the vital factors for development of an or ganization. M otivation theories can be divided into three categories. Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The distinction between content and process theories notesmatic.
In contrast to the need based theories we have covered so far, process based theories view motivation as a rational process. A classic taxonomy of motivation theories is to group them into two main sets. The psychological and behavioral processes that motivate a person to act in a particular way are referred to as process theories of motivation. Theories of motivation and their application in organizations. The work motivation theories can be broadly classified as content theories and process theories. The distinction between content and process theories. The content theories find the answer to what motivates an individual and is concerned with individual needs and wants. There is no universally accepted theory of motivation. Oct 26, 2014 content theory vs process theory difference between content theory and process theory is that, content theory emphasizes on the reasons for changing the human needs frequently while process theory focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation, with regard to the expectations, goals, and perceptions of equity.
They are the process theories and the content theories. In the field of organizational behavioral studies, there are two different categories called content theories also known as need theory and process theories. Start studying content and process theories of motivation. Early theories of motivation the 1950s were a fruitful period in the development of motivation concepts. Instead, process based theories view motivation as a rational process. Process theories are concerned with the thought processes that influence behaviour. Content theories these theories are concerned with identifying peoples needs and. Theories of motivation content and process theories the distinction between. Essay about process and content theory of motivation and how. Earlier, it was discussed that theories of motivation, dealing with content, seek to find. Contentbased theories contentbased theories of motivation based on identification of the internal motives that make people act in a certain way. Process theories of motivation how personal needs drive. The use of both content and process theories must be put into practice to motivate. Individuals analyze their environment, develop reactions and feelings, and react in certain ways.
In a historical perspective, the content theories tend to be the earliest theories of motivation or later modifications of early theories. The employee compares his input and output to colleagues, someone at another. We can distinguish between contentand processmotivation theories. Reinforcement theory is based on operant conditioning, and. Processbased theories of motivation lumen learning. Process theories attempt to identify the relationship among the dynamic variables, which make up motivation. Processbased theories introduction to business deprecated. Earlier, it was discussed that theories of motivation, dealing with content, seek to find what it is that. Content theories deal with what motivates people and it is concerned with.1432 1060 959 1278 1154 926 1310 859 1033 1257 697 1505 63 425 1384 720 699 399 499 37 1095 344 165 1372 265 920 321 336 1085 1428 20 497 875 355 174 558