An abg is the most accurate representation of a patients clinical status and correct interpretation can lead to quicker and more accurate changes in the. Arterial blood gas analysis an overview sciencedirect. Arterial blood gas abg interpretation for medical students, osces and mrcp paces this section presents how to interpret arterial blood gases. Its a test that is used to assess how well oxygen is being distributed throughout the body and how well carbon dioxide is being removed. When the ph is normal, it will be fully compensated. However, numerous clinical scenarios can result in disruption of the bodys acidbase balance. See simple and mixed acidbase disorders and venous blood gases and other alternatives to arterial blood gases. Overnight, the cow ate grain and hay, displacement reoccurred. This book provides readers with the core background knowledge required to understand the abg, explains how it is used in clinical practice and provides a unique system for interpreting results. Gas chapter 6 blood gas and critical care analyte analysis.
Arterial blood gases can be challenging to all nurses despite their level of expertise. A case study approach arterial blood gas interpretation. Following are the steps one should follow when reading the arterial blood gas and interpreting the values simultaneously. Everyone can read an electrolyte level, but when faced with a list of abgs, most nurses wilt. Interpretation of venous blood gases and detailed discussion of acidbase disturbances are discussed separately. Weve created this guide, which aims to provide a structured approach to abg interpretation whilst also increasing your understanding of each results relevance. Interpreting an arterial blood gas abg is a crucial skill for physicians, nurses, respiratory.
The interpretation of arterial blood gases australian. Arterial blood gas interpretation, abg analysis, rules for rapid abg analysis, anion gap, approach to mixed disorders introduction arterial blood gas abg analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patients oxygenation status and acidbase balance. It provides us with information about ventilation, oxygenation. Arterial blood gas interpretation the purpose of this selfleaming packet is to educate patient care providers on the basic principles of acidbase balance as well as to provide a systematic approach to the interpretation of arterial blood gases. Explains the basic physiological ph abnormalities and more to understand. Analysis of arterial blood gases a comprehensive approach. Interpreting arterial blood gases abgs by michael greenlee for openpediatrics. The following sixstep process helps ensure a complete interpretation of every abg. If it outside range, then it is uncompensated or partially compensated. If the pascal unit is used for blood pressure measurement, a normal blood pressure of 12080 mmhg would be an unwieldy 1596010640 pa. Are you ready to learn about arterial blood gases and abg interpretation. Arterial blood gases abg results reflect underlying pathology and interpretation of the results are often compounded by ongoing disease processes and clinical interventions.
The purpose of this course is to provide the learner with basic information on how to interpret arterial blood gas results. Analysis of arterial blood gases a comprehensive approach ms barthwal abstract the arterial blood gases is one of the most important investigation for assessment of clinical oxygenation and acidbase status in critically ill patients. This is relevant in febrile or hypothermic patients, so body temperature should be recorded at the time of collection. Understanding arterial blood gases nursing case studies. Without knowing them, your patient could easily go. Abgs made easy for nurses w tic tac toe method for arterial blood gas interpretation duration. Components of the arterial blood gas the arterial blood gas provides the following values. Arterial blood gas abg interpretation is something many medical students find difficult to grasp weve been there. Wagner number 8 in the series physiology in respiratory medicine.
Arterial blood gas analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patients oxygenation status and acidbase balance. An arterial blood gas abg analysis can tell you about a patients oxygenation, acidbase balance, pulmonary function, and metabolic status. Blood for an abg test is taken from an artery whereas most other blood tests are done on a sample of blood taken from a vein. Arterial blood gas abg analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patients oxygenation status and acidbase balance. The arterial blood gas analysis, obtained while the patient is breathing a known fraction of inspired oxygen f io 2, is the gold standard for assessing oxygenation, ventilation, and acidbase status. Abg interpretation a guide to understanding abgs geeky.
Interpreting an arterial blood gas abg is a crucial skill for physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other health care personnel. Therefore doctors around the world have agreed to retain mmhg as the unit of blood pressure measurement. Severe illness with multiple problems, andor clinical problems identified or. Arterial blood gases abg can be difficult and confusing to understand at first. Arterial blood gases you are a new staff member working in the emergency department ed during your induction you are introduced to the practical workings of the point of care arterial blood gas abg machine in the ed. As a respiratory therapist or student, is it critically important to know and understand the ins and outs abgs. It is simple, perhaps simplistic, but it will hopefully arm the reader with the tools and confidence to. Arterial blood gas interpretation felicia ratnaraj internal medicine pgy 3 pm report. Mistakes in arterial blood gas abg interpretation are common in clinical practice.
A case study approach is specially for all the emergency medicine rotatorsexplains all the essentials from basics to the most difficult casesnow you can download the book. This indispensable tool helps you assess and monitor critically ill patients in the icu or other critical care settings. Know some of the indications and contraindications for performing an arterial puncture. For example, they are used to guide the adjustment of ventilator parameters on. Changes in oxygenation and acidbase balance are key to understanding the acuity and progression of.
Body temperature can also affect arterial blood gas tensions. Arterial blood gases abgs provide a wealth of information for the differential diagnosis of many respiratory and metabolic diseases, but how can nurses use this information as part of the physical assessment and reporting of key events. The partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood the pao2 and the partial pressure of co2 in the arterial blood the paco2. Patients are often required to be checked for arterial blood gas analysis to find what exactly is happening in the body of patients system. Monitoring of acidbase balance is done by testing patients arterial blood gases abgs. Abg quick interpretation parameter acidosis normal alkalosis reflects ph 7. However, its a crucial skill for nurses, physicians, respiratory therapists, and nursing students to learn. It measures the acidity ph and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood. The following is a simplified explanation of abgs, including a practical method for interpreting results. Arterial blood gasses, or abgs, may be among the most complex and confusing parts of nursing practice. The results of abg testing will often influence the treatment that patients receive. If so, youre in the right place, because that is what this study guide is all about.
Partial compensation means that the ph is still abnormal. Interpreting and using the arterial blood gas analysis. Maintaining the ph of blood is essential for normal bodily function. Blood gas worksheet checklist download pdf you are a new staff member working in the emergency department ed during your induction you are introduced to the practical workings of the point of care arterial blood gas abg machine in the ed. Arterial blood gases abgs are measured in a laboratory test to determine the extent of compensation by the buffer system. An arterial blood gas, or abg for short, is a test that measures the blood levels of oxygen pao2, carbon dioxide paco2, and acidbase balance ph in the body. But it is often encountered that many students dont know how to read abg, and thats why we are providing arterial blood gas. Arterial blood gases made easy pdf download free ebooks. Be able to demonstrate the technique for performing an arterial puncture. Aarc clinical practice guideline blood gas analysis and. Indications, interpretations, and clinical applications m etabolic derangements and respiratory distress are common presenting problems in emergency medicine. Abg interpretation is especially important in critically ill patients.
It is possible to have a mixed respiratory and metabolic disorder that makes interpretation of an arterial blood gas result difficult. As you struggle to listen to the machine company representative talking about cleaning the machine. It explains each component in turn followed by clinical examples to work through. The oxygen tension pao 2, carbon dioxide tension paco. The usefulness of this diagnostic tool is dependent. In lieu of an arterial blood gas determination, capillary or venous blood gases may be utilized, but. Remember the partial pressure of a gas is just a way of measuring the concentration of that gas. Fortunately, there are some easy ways to remember how to decipher these important lab results. Body will not overcompensate when it comes to acidbase balance so.
Anjali sharma, in nelson pediatric symptombased diagnosis, 2018. Arterial blood bas abg procedure and interpretation. Orlando regional healthcare is an approved provider of continuing nursing education by. The most important points when assessing a patient are the history, examination and basic observations. Aarc clinical practice guideline blood gas analysis and hemoximetry 20 michael d davis rrt, brian k walsh rrtnps rpft faarc. The usefulness of this diagnostic tool is dependent on being able to correctly interpret the results. Interpretation of arterial blood gases requires a systematic assessment of oxygenation, ph, standard bicarbonate shco 3. Arterial blood gas analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patients. Arterial blood gases po 2 so 2 measured calculated pulse oximetry pco 2 ph bebd hco 3venous co 2 oxygenation ventilation acidbase. The hydrogen ions are buffered by desaturated hemoglobin, and hco3 is transported out of the eryth rocytes into the plasma figure 63.
The purpose of this course is to provide nurses with information regarding blood gases and their basic interpretation skills. We measure the concentration of two gases dissolved in the arterial blood. Details about i ph ii oxygenation, oxygen saturation, oxygen content, alveolar gas equation, indices of oxygenation iii carbon dioxide transport, pco 2 total co 2 content, and bicarbonate levels iv base excess and buffer base 5. Interpretation of arterial blood gas pubmed central pmc. Interpreting abgs arterial blood gases made easy ausmed. Arterial blood gases play an important role in the workup and management of critically ill patients and patients with a variety of pulmonary complaints and disorders. The process of analysis and monitoring of arterial blood gas abg is an essential part of diagnosing and managing the oxygenation status and acidbase balance of the highrisk patients, as well. Oxygen content of blood is affected by level and affinity state of hemoglobin example is co poisoning. Full compensation means that the ph is back to normal. Blood gases can be analyzed on a variety of specimen types, including arterial, venous, and capillary samples. Arterial blood gases provide 2 specific types of information. Interpretation of arterial blood gases abgs david a. The pf ratio ratio between the pao 2 and the inspired oxygen concentration expressed as a fraction is a useful guide to the presence and severity of impaired. Evaluation of ab status interpretation of blood gases whenwhy do a blood gas.530 471 928 1347 644 1139 626 371 1574 398 703 585 387 69 1128 92 944 774 28 335 1009 176 755 528 351 300 947 152 86